Cantillon, M.D., Rahul Doshi, M.D., T. Jared Bunch, M.D., Gery F. Tomassoni, M.D., Paul A. Friedman, M.D., N.A. Tag Estes, III, M.D., John Ip, M.D., Imran Niazi, M.D., Kenneth Plunkitt, M.D., Rajesh Banker, M.D., James Porterfield, M.D., James E. Ip, M.D., and Srinivas R. Dukkipati, M.D. For the LEADLESS II Research Investigators: Percutaneous Implantation of an Entirely Intracardiac Leadless Pacemaker.. Vivek Y. Reddy, M.D., Derek V. Exner, M.D., M.P.H., Daniel J.Lifestyle changes were self-chosen, and residual confounding from other way of life behaviors can be done. However, as opposed to prevalent behaviors, changes in these behaviors were generally not highly correlated , which suggests that different behaviors are often changed relatively independently, thus minimizing potential confounding. Someone’s weight change could lead to changes in lifestyle instead of vice versa. Such invert causation would generally underestimate true effects. For example, individuals who are attaining weight might plausibly either reduce their intake of sugar-sweetened beverages and sweets or enhance their usage of vegetables, resulting in reverse bias with respect to the observed associations.